Photodynamic therapy combined with antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment for recalcitrant chronic central serous chorioretinopathy
This article was published in the Dove Press Journal: Clinical Ophthalmology
Masumi G Asahi 1
Andrew T Chon 1
Esmeralda Gallemore 1
Ron P Gallemore 1,2
1 Clinical Research Department, Retina Macula Institute, Torrance, CA, USA;
2 Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Purpose: To determine whether combination photodynamic therapy (PDT) and antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is effective in the management of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) recalcitrant to conventional therapy.
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of eight patients with chronic CSC unresponsive to topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, focal photocoagulation, anti-VEGF alone, or PDT alone. All patients were evaluated with a full ophthalmic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), and most with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) followed by treatment with half-fluence PDT and intravitreal anti-VEGF injection (seven bevacizumab, one aflibercept). Patients were seen in follow-up 1 month after treatment.
Results: All eight patients achieved complete resolution in subretinal fluid following combination treatment. Average duration of CSC prior to initiation of combination therapy was 7.5 months. Mean central macular thickness on OCT decreased significantly from 401.2 ±52.7 µm to 297.9±18.2 µm (p=0.0010) by 4 months after treatment (1.63±1.18 months). Seven of eight patients were followed up for an average of 13 months with no recurrence during that time. One case recurred at 8 months and was treated with repeat combination at that time. Frank choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was not identified in these cases on FA or ICGA studies. Eight of eight patients showed significant improvement in vision from a logMAR of 0.1125 ±0.099 to 0.0125±0.064 (p=0.019).
Conclusion: Combination PDT and anti-VEGF is effective for chronic CSC which has failed conventional therapy. Associated CNV and/or inflammation may be reasons for greater success in patients treated with combination therapy.
Keywords: anti-VEGF, chronic central serous chorioretinopathy, combination, photodynamic therapy, recalcitrant